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APA Citations: In-Text Citations

This guide will help with APA formatting citations

What is an In-Text Citation?

In-text citations are used within the body of your paper to briefly document the source of your information.  Your reader can use them to locate the full citation in the reference list at the end of your paper. 

A typical in-text citation includes the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and the page number enclosed in parentheses.  For example:

"Here is a direct quote" (Smith, 2019, p. 41).

Remember:

  1. An in-text citation should be present whenever you quote OR paraphrase a source.  
  2. An in-text citation for a paraphrase does not require a page number.
  3. All in-text citations must correspond to a citation on your Works Cited list. 

Basic Format

Both options are correct:

One recent scholar asserts that reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (Baron, 2017, p. 11).

 

According to Baron (2017), reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (p. 11).

 

TIP:  If you are paraphrasing a source, without a direct quote, you do not need to include a page number.  For both paraphrases and quotations, the publication date should always appear immediately after the author name.

Both options are correct:

Lemery and Auerbach (2017) note that doctors have not yet adequately explained the effects climate change will have on human health.

 

Others note that doctors have not yet adequately explained the effects climate change will have on human health (Lemery & Auerbach, 2017).

 

TIP:  When citing a source with two authors, include both last names.  If the names are included within a parenthetical citation, use an ampersand (&) rather than the word "and."

Both options are correct:

According to Jecker et al. (2021), "vaccines should be distributed globally, with priority to frontline and essential workers worldwide" (p. 316).

 

Scholars have argued that "vaccines should be distributed globally, with priority to frontline and essential workers worldwide" (Jecker et al., 2021, p. 316).

 

TIP:  When citing a source with three or more authors, list only the first author's last name, and replace the additional names with et al.

More Examples

Both options are correct:

According to a study by the World Health Organization (2022), pneumonia is a "major cause of death in children under five years of age, and the leading infectious cause of death in children under five years" (p. 29).

 

A recent study showed that pneumonia is a "major cause of death in children under five years of age, and the leading infectious cause of death in children under five years" (World Health Organization, 2022, p. 29).

 

TIP: The Group Author name included in your in-text citation should match the name at the beginning of the full citation in the reference list.

Both options are correct:

As Parker-Pope (2022) notes, "small changes in your eating habits can lower your risk for many of the diseases associated with aging" (para. 1).

 

A frequently shared news story claims that "small changes in your eating habits can lower your risk for many of the diseases associated with aging" (Parker-Pope, 2022, para. 1). 

 

TIP:  When a source has no page numbers, you may instead provide a heading or section name, a paragraph number, or a timestamp for audiovisual works. Use whichever approach will best help readers find the quotation.