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MLA Citations: Full Citations

MLA Basics

In MLA, you must cite the sources that you have paraphrased, quoted, or otherwise used to write your research paper.  Cite your sources in two places:

  1. At the end of your paper, you will provide a full citation for each source in a Works Cited list.
  2. Within the text of your paper, you will provide an abbreviated in-text citation whenever you use information taken from a source.

Online Journal Articles

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Publication Date, pp. Page Numbers. Database Name, Link.

Only include the Database Name if applicable.

Works Cited List Example:

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966.

In-Text Citation: 

(Langhamer 184)

Author's Last Name, First Name, and Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Publication Date, pp. Page Numbers. Database Name, Link.

Only include the Database Name if applicable.

Works Cited List Example:

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates.” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Academic Search Premier, https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155.

In-Text Citation: 

(Alonso and Camargo 92)

Author's Last Name, First Name, et al. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Publication Date, pp. Page Numbers. Database Name, Link.

Only include the Database Name if applicable.

Works Cited List Example:

Walters, Benjamin, et al. “The Effects of Resistance Training, Overtraining, and Early Specialization on Youth Athlete Injury and Development.” The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 58, no. 9, 2018, pp. 1339-1348. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07409-6.

In-Text Citation: 

(Walters et al. 1344)

Websites

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article or Webpage." Website Name, Sponsoring Organization if different from website name, Day Month Year of Publication or last modified date, Link.

 

Works Cited List Example:

Spencer, Alison and Cary Funk. "Americans Largely Support U.S. Joining International Efforts to Address Climate Change." Pew Research Center, 9 March 2022, www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/03/09/americans-largely-support-u-s-joining-international-efforts-to-address-climate-change/.

In-Text Citation: 

(Spencer and Funk)

Name of Group/Organization. "Title of Article or Webpage." Website Name, Sponsoring Organization if different from website name, Day Month Year of Publication or last modified date, Link.

 

Works Cited List Example:

U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. "Capital Punishment in the United States, 1973-2019."  National Archive of Criminal Justice Data, 8 June 2021, https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37998.v1.

In-Text Citation: 

(U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics)

Other Online Articles

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper [City of Publication if not stated in Newspaper Title], Day Month Year of Publication, Database Name, Link.

Only include the Database Name if applicable.

Works Cited List Example:

Bennhold, Katrin. “Line Blurs in Germany Between Pandemic Protestors and Far Right.” New York Times, 1 March 2022, Nexis Uni, advance.lexis.com/api/permalink/3429f5e1-8fd2-42b0-a985-9344df35b3cc/?context=1516831.

In-Text Citation: 

(Bennhold)

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, vol. Volume Number [if given], no. Issue Number [if given], Day Month Year or Season Year of Publication, pp. Page Numbers [if given]. Database Name, Link.

Only include the Database Name if applicable.

Works Cited List Example:

Goldin, Kara. “Do You Have What It Takes to Run Your Own Business?” Newsweek, vol. 177, no. 5, 20 Aug. 2021, pp. 10-13. Academic Search Premier, lib.assumption.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=151850094&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

In-Text Citation: 

(Goldin 12)

Books

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Publisher, Year of Publication.

 

Works Cited List Example:

Roberts, Sarah. Behind the Screen: Content Moderation in the Shadows of Social Media. Yale University Press, 2019.

In-Text Citation: 

(Roberts 244)

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Publisher, Year of Publication. Database Name, Link.

 

Works Cited List Example:

Lee, Joseph and Marion R. Casey. Making the Irish American: History and Heritage of the Irish in the United States. New York University Press, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/assumption-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3025598.

In-Text Citation: 

(Lee and Casey 112)

Chapter Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter." Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, edited by Editor's First Name and Last Name, Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. Page Numbers of Chapter.

 

Works Cited List Example:

Peterson, John. "Narrating Our Wounds: Trauma, Literature and Vocation." Cultivating Vocation in Literary Studies, edited by Stephanie Johnson and Erin VanLaningham, Edinburgh University Press, 2022, pp. 233-254.

In-Text Citation: 

(Peterson 251)

But Which Link Do I Use?

DOI Links

If your citation requires a link, try first to locate a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) for your source.  A DOI may be listed as a link or as a string of numbers and letters (for example: 10.1007/s12021-021-09517-8).  If the DOI appears as a string of numbers and letters, convert it to a link by adding https://doi.org/ to the beginning.  A DOI link is the best type of link to use in your MLA citations.

Example: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12021-021-09517-8

Permalinks

When a DOI is not available, try to locate a URL that is stable, permanent, or persistent (sometimes called a permalink). Most library databases will provide such a link, although it is NOT located in the address bar at the top of your browser.  Look around for a special icon or button.  You do not need to include https:// when using a permalink URL.

Example: www.jstor.org/stable/24537368

Other URLs

If neither a DOI or permalink is available, use the URL in the address bar at the top of your browser.  If the URL runs for three full lines of text or longer, you can shorten it or omit the remaining portion.  Do not use shortening services such as bit.ly.  You do not need to include https:// when using these types of URLs.

Example: www.cnn.com/2022/03/16/politics/zelensky-speech-takeaways/index.html